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Saturday, July 28, 2012

தஞ்சை மராத்திய மன்னர் வாரிசுகள்

தஞ்சை மராத்திய மன்னர்  வாரிசுகள்

கி.பி. 1674 முதல் 1855 வரை தஞ்சையை மராத்திய மன்னர்கள் ஆண்டார்கள். அதன் பின்னர் அவர்கள் வாரிசுகள் யார்? 1674 முதலான மன்னர் பரம்பரை விவரங்களை இங்கு பார்க்கலாம். விவரமான வரலாற்றுச் செய்திகளுக்கு மராத்தியர் வரலாறு எனும் பகுதியை இதே வலைத்தளத்தில் பார்க்கலாம். முதன் முதலில் தஞ்சையில் மராத்திய சாம்ராஜ்யத்தை நிறுவியவர் ஏகோஜி. இவர் சத்ரபதி சிவாஜி ராஜாவின் இளைய சகோதரர். இவரைத் தொடர்ந்த பல மன்னர்கள் ஆண்டபின் 1855இல் சிவாஜி II என்பவரின் காலத்துக்குப் பின் ஆங்கில கம்பெனியார் தஞ்சை ராஜ்யத்தைத் தாங்களே எடுத்துக் கொண்டார்கள். இனி ஏகோஜி தொடங்கி தொடர்ந்து வந்த மன்னர்கள் விவரங்களைப் பார்ப்போம்.

1674 - 1686 ஏகோஜி என்றும், வெங்கோஜி என்றும் அழைக்கப்பட்டவர். இவர் சத்ரபதி சிவாஜியின் இளைய சகோதரர்.
1686 - 1711 ஷாஜி I என்றும் ஷாகுஜி என்றும் அழைக்கப்பட்டவர்.
1711 - 1727 சரபோஜி I 
1727 - 1735 துக்கோஜி
1735 - 1738 துக்கோஜியின் மரணத்துக்குப் பின் நாட்டில் குழப்பம் நிலவியது.
1735 - 1736 ஏகோஜி II 
1735 - 1738 சையீது (அமைச்சராக இருந்த இவர் பதவியைப் பறித்துக் கொண்டார்)
1736 - 1737 சுஜனாபாயி
1737 - 1738 சையீதின் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் இருந்த சுஜனாபாயி அவனுக்கு எதிராக மாறி காட்டு ராஜா எனும் போலி ராஜாவை விரட்டியடித்தார். ப்ரெஞ்சுக்காரர்கள் உதவி பெற்று அந்த போலி ராஜா தஞ்சை மீது படையெடுத்தார். ஷாகுஜி II எனும் பெயரில் இவர் ஒரு ஆண்டு ஆட்சி புரிந்தார். பின்னர் பதவி இழந்தார்.
1738 - 1739 சவாய் ஷாஜி/ஷாகுஜி II/காட்டுராஜா
1739 - 1763 பிரதாபசிம்ம ராஜா. துக்கோஜியின் மகன். குழப்பங்களை அடக்கி நல்லாட்சி தந்தார்.
1749 இந்த ஆண்டில் கிழக்கிந்திய கம்பெனியார் நாயக்க மன்னர்களின் வாரிசுகளுக்கு ஆட்சியைக் கொடுக்க விரும்பினர் ஆனால் முடியவில்லை.
1763 - 1787 துளஜாஜி. இவர் வாரிசு இன்றி மாண்டு போனார்.
1784 திப்புசுல்தானுக்கும் கிழக்கிந்திய கம்பெனியாருக்குமிடையே போர் 1780இல் நடந்தது. திப்புவின் படைகள் தஞ்சையை துவம்சம் செய்துவிட்டுப் போய்விட்டனர்.
1787 - 1793 சரபோஜி II துளஜாஜியின் ஸ்வீகார புத்திரன். 10 வயதில் பட்டத்துக்கு வந்தார்.
1787 - 1793 அமர்சிங். இவர் துளஜாவின் சகோதரன். 1793இல் பதவியைப் பறித்துக் கொண்டார்.
1793 - 1798 அமர்சிங். பதவி வகித்து 1798இல் காலமானார்.
1798 - 1824 சரபோஜி II மீண்டும் பதவிக்கு வந்து சிறப்பாக ஆட்சி புரிந்தார்.
1799 கிழக்கிந்திய கம்பெனியார் தஞ்சையைத் தன் ஆட்சிக்குள் கொண்டுவந்தனர். தலைநகர் மட்டும் ராஜாவின் ஆட்சியின் கீழ் இருந்தது.
1824 - 1855 சிவாஜி II வாரிசு இல்லாமல் காலமானார். 
1855 ஆட்சி அதிகாரம் கிழக்கிந்திய கம்பெனி வசம் போய்விட்டது. டல்ஹவுசியின் நாடுபிடிக்கும் திட்டத்தின்படி வாரிசு இல்லாத நாடுகளை அவர்கள் எடுத்துக் கொண்டனர். வைஸ்ராய் எனும் அதிகாரி நியமிக்கப்பட்டு ஆட்சி நடந்தது.
மேலே கண்ட விவரப்படி 1855இல் சிவாஜி II ராஜா வாரிசு இல்லாமல் இறந்து போனமையால் கிழகிந்திய கம்பெனியார் ஆட்சி அதிகாரங்களைப் பறித்துக் கொண்டனர். சிவாஜி ராஜாவின் மகள் ஆட்சிக்கு உரிமை கோரினார். அவருக்கு ராஜாவின் வாரிசு என்ற அங்கீகாரம் கிடைத்தது; ஆட்சி அதிகாரம் இல்லை. சிவாஜி II ராஜாவின் ஸ்வீகார புத்திரன் மூலம் பிறந்த பேரன் வாரிசு உரிமை கொண்டாடினார்.

1855 - 1886 விஜய மோகனா முதும்பர்பாயி. சிவாஜி II இன் புதல்வி.
1859 விஜயா ஹோல்காபூர் இளவரசர் சகாராம் சாஹேப் என்பவரை மணந்தார். சகாராம் சாஹேபுக்கு வாரிசுரிமை
சிவாஜி II ராஜாவின் ஸ்வீகார புதல்வன் சிவாஜி III
பிரதாப்சிங் III இவர் சிவாஜி IIIஇன் சகோதரர்.
ராஜாராம் சாஹேப் இவர் சிவாஜி IIIஇன் புதல்வர் ஷாஹாஜி ராஜேயின் மகன்.
சிவாஜி IV இவர் ராஜாராம் சாஹேபின் புதல்வர்.
1947 - 1948 தஞ்சாவூர் ராஜ்யம் இந்திய குடியரசின் அங்கமாக அங்கீகரிக்கப்பட்டது.
சிவாஜி V இவர் சகோதரி மகன்

பாபாஜி ராஜா போன்ஸ்லே தற்போதைய இளவரசர். இவர் சிவாஜி IVஇன் புதல்வர். 1969இல் பிறந்த இவர் ஒரு பொறியாளர். இவருக்கு இரண்டு புதல்விகள் உண்டு.





Photo:M_Moorthy 
 
Babaji Raja Bhonsle.

THANJAVUR: Self-effacement, humility and warmth are not the qualities that one often associates with royalty. But that is precisely what sets the Senior Prince of Thanjavur apart.
With an imposing name like Babaji Rajah Bhonsle Chattrapathi, the man in flesh dispels the regal, forbidding image of royalty. Absolutely down-to-earth, unpretentious, with a welcoming smile and mellow tones, he captures princely responsibilities succinctly. “It is like running in a rally. For now, the baton has now come to me. I just have to pass it on to the next generation safely. ”
The 13th descendant of the Maratha kings of Thanjavur, Babaji is the hereditary trustee of the Palace devasthanam with 88 temples under his fold. Forced to inherit at 16 due to the untimely death of his father, the schoolboy prince found on his hands, what he describes as a ‘sinking ship'. “The situation was pretty grim. The administration of the temples was in bad state. There were so many unpaid bills and pending salaries.”But the Prince took up the reins after qualifying himself with a degree in civil engineering at SASTRA College, Thanjavur. More than 70 temples have been consecrated after he assumed responsibility. Yet, he gives himself very little credit but attributes it to Divine Providence and public support. “I am more of a facilitator between the government and people, encouraging philanthropic activities and government help to serve society.”
Not many, even royalty can lay claim to a 1000 year-old marvel like the Brahadeeshwarar, which is one among the 88 temples. His role, as he puts it, is bridging the ASI and HR and CE by mediating the spiritual and preservation activities of the temple.
He strongly advocates promoting the welfare of tenants who occupy temple lands and believes that Chatrams created by the Marathas could be put to better use if they are converted to cultural centres generating employment for towns in the vicinity of ThanjavurAs the Convenor of INTACH, Thanjavur Chapter, Babaji has donned the mantle of custodian of art and culture, just like his forefathers. Conservation is his priority while he is passionate about promoting tourism.
“Around 3,000- 5,000 tourists visit the Big Temple daily. But such a number is not translated into economic figures. We have not tapped the tourism potential completely. If tourists are urged to spend a night instead of briefly halting in the town, the economy is bound to soar.”To promote the Palce as a tourist interest, he stresses on the need for a permanent maintenance fund and an integrated administration committee. Babaji is techno-savvy and is the promoter of an e-publishing unit town he has set up with friends.
He concludes with a candid confession, “My position and my personality are a complete mismatch. I can do a hundred things silently. But put me on a stage and I feel like a fish out of water.”




Prince of a secular dynasty
Unlike some in the North, this royal house in the South is battling to keep its property from falling to rack and ruin, and is an ideal study in contrasts, says KAUSALYA SANTHANAM.




FROM the royal homes of Rajasthan to those of Thanjavur is not just a journey in miles. It is a contrast in terms of wealth and lifestyles. Between the scions who have successfully turned their considerable properties into assets, and heirs battling to keep their rather meagre ones from falling to rack and ruin. It is to mark the difference in attitudes — between a government that is quite sensitive to its heritage and one that indifferently allows it to go to seed.
Babaji Rajah Bhonsle Chattrapathy, 34-year-old heir to the Maratha house, and a man acutely proud of his heritage, is battling to save it from literally falling apart. Unlike the North, Tamil Nadu has very few palaces. The Thanjavur Palace, one among the few royal dwellings in the State, is an impressive structure set in 120 acres. First built in the 15th Century, it was added on by successive generations of rulers. Since Thanjavur became a British residency in 1885 and the rulers were not granted a privy purse, the palace has nothing of the sweep and dimensions of the other grander princely houses in the country. But it is a lovely structure which is now owned by the Public Works Department (PWD) and the State Archaeology Department. To one's amazement certain rooms in it are used by the Government as godowns to store paddy!
The prince is a man in step with the times with a degree in engineering but has chosen to be prince "full time" in order to play his role properly. "I'm hereditary trustee of 88 temples," he tells you. Thanjavur, besides being the cradle of art and culture is also a most vibrant spiritual centre. The magnificently built temples in this region call the devotee and aesthete again and again, the crowning glory being the Brihadeeswara temple (the Big Temple). Built by Raja Raja Chola (985-1012 A.D.), the structure that soars to a height of 64.8 metres, is a mind blowing spectacle even for a regular visitor. The prince and his family members worship here every day. The secular tradition handed down by his ancestors ensures that Babaji supports churches and mosques in the region.
When the income does not match the obligations, life can be tough especially if you have a fierce pride in your traditions and lineage. The prince does his best. "Frankly it is quite difficult," he admits. The family is granted a pension of Rs. 2,500 by the Government. "I don't want to refuse it as it means we are recognised as the former ruling family." He loves the privileges royalty brings. "The late President Shankar Dayal Sharma came here in 1991. He later gave me the opportunity of attending the World Marathi Conference," he tells you proudly.
Thanjavur, the capital of many distinguished dynasties, was the seat of the mighty Cholas and then the equally powerful Pandyas. The immediate predecessors of the Marathas were the Nayaks.
"Our jewels and rich clothes were seized by the British. After a long legal battle, we got judgment in our favour in 1939," says Bhonsle, "but we were never very wealthy." That did not stop these rulers from pursuing philanthropic activities. The Chatrams (rest houses) for travellers built by the Maratha kings are now in government control and continue to house the weary and the sick.
The prince is enthusiastic about heritage conservation, "We will be happy if the Government makes use of our expertise. Thanjavur gets 5,000 visitors a month. But hardly 500 visit the Palace. Since many tourists, especially foreigners are fascinated by royalty, I have been organising an event called `An evening with the Prince'," says the modest Bhonsle with a tinge of pride. A bullock cart ride, nagaswarammusic, traditional dance and the reading of palm leaf documents make the day for the tourist. "It would be good for tourism if artists and craftsmen are given space within the palace premises to sell their products."



The prince has also had a role to play in initiating the annual classical dance festival at the Big Temple along with the Collector Shanmugarajeswaran, in 1994. It was under the suggestion of Collector Palaniappan in 1951 that the Art Gallery with its fabulous bronze collection was set up in the palace precincts.
The fragrance of dance and music envelops the green Thanjavur delta. The arts were nurtured by a line of Maratha kings, especially Serfoji II. In his court was the Thanjavur Quartet, the four brothers who shaped the modern Bharatanatyam repertoire.
The art of the Marathas can be glimpsed in the colourful frescoes in the grand Durbar Hall of the palace, once the venue for glittering assemblies and now wearing a forlorn look. Signs of neglect are pervasive in the premises. Shrubs grow out of stately towers and peeling paint and flaking plaster tell their own tale. "Many of the portions I played in as a child have long since disappeared," says the prince. The portion where he resides with his wife, two small daughters and widowed mother wears a brave look, especially the room formerly used for sumptuous feasts. The sitting room is a large hall, dark and cool, with some low slung furniture and huge paintings on its walls. "This Thanjavur painting of Radha and Krishna belongs to the 17th Century and yes, that is a genuine Ravi Varma," he tells you. There is nothing to distinguish this living quarters from those of a genteel aristocratic family that has known better times. "We have always lived a simple life," he says.
But that this is royalty, even without its trappings, is made clear by the marriage alliances. The Prince was married six years ago to Gayatri Raje, niece of the former ruler of Baroda. Alliances are usually arranged with the house of Satara and Baroda though "in the past we would choose our bride from within Thanjavur". The Maratha rulers of Thanjavur integrated perfectly in the Tamil country, enriching it with folk arts such as Poikkal Kudirai (dummy horse dance) from Maharashtra. They introduced the Thanjavur style of painting with the cherubic Krishnas and other gods; these paintings are now seen lighting up living rooms everywhere.



We are joined by Babaji's wife, his sister and brother-in-law who are visiting from Bahrain. Babaji takes his duties as head of the family seriously." My younger brother works in a private firm and a younger sister, who is married, lives in Mumbai."
Babaji is referred to as the Senior Prince, "My grandfather married twice." The descendant of the second wife, the Junior Prince, who works in a clerical capacity in a bank, occupies another portion of the palace. Relations between the two are most cordial and Babaji takes you to the other wing to meet him and his family. The hall there has been converted into a museum putting together bits of family memorabilia, royal artifacts and newspaper clippings — quite an assortment displayed in a touching, homespun way. Babaji also has a museum being put in place but with a rather more sophisticated look. "I underwent training in preservation methods at the Madras Museum for three months," he tells you as he shows you around. And the entrance fee for the museums? "Re. One and Rs. Two." Surely it should be priced higher, you ask with incredulity. The brothers just smile.
"The Kanchi Peetam is our Guru Peetam," says Babaji as he leads you to the private shrine of the royals situated at the entrance to the palace. Bas reliefs, made out of the gold from the ashes of his ancestors, are kept in the shrine. "The Sankaracharya of the Kanchi Peetam came to Thanjavur when the Mughals invaded the South and lived here for many years. The Paramacharya has said I must look after the temples well."
In the shrine of Lord Chandramouleeswarar, the tutelary deity of the Marathas, the priests intone the mantras as the lingam is bathed in milk, sandalwood paste and water. At that moment, the outside world recedes into a blur and it is easy to believe the prince is a privileged member of a House that still enjoys wealth and power. And that Time has not bypassed a once well known dynasty...
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1 comment:

  1. நல்லதொரு தொகுப்பிற்கு நன்றி.

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